人教英语七年级下册Units 3-4

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重点句型:

Let’s see the lions.

Why do you like pandas? Why does he like koalas?

Because they’re very cute.

What do you do?    I’m a reporter.

What does he do?    He is a student.

What do you want to be?   What does he want to be?

He wants to be a bank clerk.

短语:kind of, be from, play with, be quiet, during the day,

at night,eat leaves, in the day

知识清单:

清单一:形容词和副词的比较等级及用法

一.形容词和副词比较等级的构成

1.规则变化

 

 

单音节及部分双音节词

 

     情 况      构成方法        例  词
  一般情况   加er/est tall-taller-tallest
  以e结尾的词  加r/st nice-nicer-nicest
以辅音字母+y结尾

的词

变为i,再加er/est heavy-heavier-heaviest
以一个辅音字母结

尾的重读闭音节

先双写词尾字母,

再加er/est

big-bigger-biggest
多音节词及部分双音节词 在词前加more/most beautiful–more beautiful

–most beautiful

不规则变化如下:

good/well-better-best  ill/bad/badly-worse-worst

many/much-more-most  little-less-least

old-older-oldest/elder-eldest  far-farther-farthest/further-furthest

一.形容词、副词等级的基本用法

1.表示二者在性质和程度上相同时,用“as+原级+as”

意思是“和……一样”。  This story is interesting as that one.

2.表示二者在性质和程度上不同时,用“not as / so+原级+as”

意思是“和……不一样”。

He is not /as tall as his elder brother. (他没有他哥哥高。)

3.表示A比B更…,用“than” I am older than he/him.我比他大。

比较级前还可用much, even, still, a little, far, any, …来修饰

Traveling by train is much(的多)cheaper and far(远远的)more enjoyable than a rushed trip by air.

坐火车旅行比坐飞机旅行有趣多了。

She is even(更加)more beautiful than before.

 

她比以前更加漂亮了。

4.三者或三者以上的人或事物进行比较,一般使用最高级,形容词最高级前面要加定冠词the,副词级前可加也可不加the,之后一般要接表示范围的in/of短语。

An elephant is the heaviest animal in the zoo.

Tom is the tallest of all. 汤姆是所有人中最高的。

He ran fastest of all. 他是所有人中跑的最快的。

of“在……之中”表示属性(同类人或物)。in“在……范围之中”,与表示范围或场所的名词连用。最高级前的修饰语也可以是first, second, third……

The Changjiang river is the longest river in China.

5..“比较级+and+比较级”表示“越来越…”的意思,若形容词或副词是多音节词,应用“more and more+原级”,此结构后不接than引导的从句。如:

When spring comes,it get warmer and warmer。

春天来临时,天气变的越来越暖和。

Our school is becoming more and more beautiful.

我们的学校正变得越来越漂亮。

6.the+比较级,the+比较级  译为“越……,就越……”

The busier she is, the happier she feels. 越忙她感觉就越幸福。

The more you read, the more you’ll learn. 你读的越多,了解就越多。The more quickly you get ready, the sooner we’ll be able to leave.

你越快能准备好,我们就越能早点走。

7.表示倍数…times+形容词比较级+than…

This book is twice thicker than that one. 这本书比那本书厚两倍。

二.不等级与比较级的相互转换

English isn’t as important as Chinese.

→English is less important than Chinese. 英文没有中文重要。

Lilei isn’t tall as Wei Hua.    李雷没有魏华高。

→Lilei is shorter than Wei Hua.    → Wei Hua is taller than Lilei.

但是如果是单音节的形容词或副词就不能与less…than转换。

清单二:使用比较级应注意的几个问题

1.注意比较级中的同类比较

在进行比较时,比较的对象必须是同类事物,不是同类事物不能比较。如: 误:His bike is newer than his father.

正:His bike is newer than his father’s.

一般来说,进行比较的事物为了避免重复,than后面的比较对象常用that或those来代替。复数名词用those代替,不可数名词或单数名词用that代替。如:

In winter the weather in Beijing is colder than that in Guangzhou.

冬天,北京的天气比广州的天气冷些。

The pictures in the books are more beautiful than those on the wall.

书上的画比墙上的画更美丽。

1.注意than后面人称代词的格

在比较级中,人称代词的主格和主格相比,宾格和宾格相比。

(1)当句子的谓语动词是不及物动词时(或虽是及物动词但在不引起歧义的情况下),than后面的代词用主格.宾格都可以,两者的意思并无明显区别。如:He studies harder than I/me.   他学习比我用功。

We get to school earlier than he/him every day. 我们每天到校比他早

(1)当句子中的谓语动词是及物动词时,than 后面的人称代词用主格或宾格在意思上就有差别。试比较:

I like you more than him.(=I like you more than I like him)

你和他相比,我更喜欢你。

I like you more than he.(=I like you more than he likes you)

我比他更喜欢你。

1.当进行比较的双方在同一范围内,注意要在than后表示对象的名词前加上other一词,将比较的一方从被比较的一方中排除出来,否则就会出现与自身相比的矛盾现象。

试译:汉语比其他学科更受欢迎。

误:Chinese is more popular than any subject.

正:Chinese is more popular than any other subject.

这种句子在形式上是比较级,但在意思上是最高级。通常同样的意思却有多种表达方式。以“他在班上学习最用功“为例,可有以下几种表达:

He studies hardest in his class.

He studies harder than any other student in his class.

He studies harder than any of the other students in his class.

He studies harder than all the other students in his class.

He studies harder than any of others in his class.

He studies harder than any one else in his class.

He studies harder than the others in his class.

He studies harder than the other students in his class.

但是若比较的双方不在同一范围内,则不需要other 来排除了。

如:China is larger than any country in Africa。

中国比非洲任何国家都大(中国不在非洲,故any后不要other)

2.not so/as…as…可与less…than或more…than…互换。如:

I think math is not as/so interesting as English。

= I think math is less interesting than English。

=I think English is more interesting than math。

我认为数学没有英语那样有趣。

在使用not so/as…as…结构时,如果句子中的谓语动词是实义动词,not应与助动词do的适当形式连用,而不能直接接在谓语动词的后面.如:

误:He gets up not so/as early as Jim。

正:He doesn’t get up as/so early as Jim。

3.much,a little, even, still等表示程度的副词可用来修饰比较级,而very, too, so, quite(表示身体健康的quiter除外)习惯上不用来修饰比较级。如:

误:I think science is very more difficult than Chinese.

正:I think science is much more difficult than Chinese.

清单三:形容词的顺序

当多个形容词同时修饰一个名词时,通常按这样的顺序:限定词+描绘性的形容词+大小+形状+新旧或年龄+颜色+国家或地区+材料+用途+被修饰的名词。如:

A light white shelf.一个轻便的白色鞋架。

A short young Japanese businessman.一个身材矮小的年轻日本人.

清单四:几组副词的用法辨析

1.very与much表示“很”,“非常”。

very 用于写实形容词或副词的原级;much用于修饰形容词或副词的比较级,修饰动词要用 much 或very much.

如:It’s very nice,这个非常好.

She said she was much better than before 她说她比以前好多了。

You did it very well.    你做的很好。

I like English very much.  我非常喜欢英语。

2.so与such表示“如此”,“那么”,“这么”。

(1)so修饰形容词或副词,such修饰名词,但名词前可以有形容词做定语。如:

I can’t be here so early.我不可能这么早来。

I’ve never seen such fine drawings.我从来没有见过如此漂亮的图。

(2)so修饰的形容词后如有一个单数可数名词,其结构是so+adj.+a/an+n.

试比较:She is so good a girl.

She is such a good girl.

(3)如果可数名词复数前有many, few或不可数名词前有much,little等表示数量多少的形容词,用so而不用such。

如:I’m afraid that he’ll forget it if he misses so many lessons.

我恐怕如果他耽误这么多的课程他会忘掉的。

Miss Zhao got so little money a month.

赵老师每个月只领这么少的钱。

3.too,also与either表示“也(不)”。

too 和 also用于肯定句中,too常用于口语中,置于句末;also常用于书面语中,置于be动词之后,行为动词之前;either用于否定句中。如:

I’m fine, too.我也好。

We also have eleven players in a team.我们每个队也有11个队员。

中国的熟食也很流行。

We don’t like the same colours,either.

我们也不喜欢同一颜色。

4.ago与before,表示“在······以前”。

ago表示以现在为起点的“以前”,before指在过去或将来的某时刻“以前”或泛指“以前”。如:

—When did you have a meeting ?

你们什么时候开的会?

—Three day ago.三周前。

Mr.Smith said that John had told him all about his past three weeks before.史密斯先生说,约翰三周前就把他的过去全部告诉了他。

I have never lost a book before. 我以前从没有丢过书。

5.sometime,sometimes,some times 和 some time。

sometime表示将来或过去的“某个时候”;sometimes指“有时候”;some times表示“倍数、次数”。如:

New students will come to our school sometime next week. 新同学将于下周到校。

It took me some time to finish reading the book.

我花了一些时间读完这本书。

Sometimes,I know what she’s thinking

有时候我知道她在想什么事。

Our school is some times larger than theirs.

我们学校比他们学校大几倍。

6.Already,yet与still表示“已经”等。

alreaday 表示某事已经发生,still 表示谋事仍在进行,主要用于肯定句,yet用于疑问句表示“已经”,用于否定句表示“还没有”、“尚未”等。 如:

I’ve already finished it. 我已经完成了这项工作。

I have sung already. 我已经唱过了。

They were still neck and neck. 他们仍齐头并进,不分上下。

Have you found your ruler yet?

你已经找到尺子了吗?

He hasn’t  finished his work yet.他还没有完成工作。Already 有时用于疑问句,表示出乎意料,惊讶等。如:Have you finished already?

练习:

1 The air in Beijing is getting much -___now than a few years ago.

A clean   B cleaner  C cleanest  D  the cleanest

2 –We spent all our money because we stayed at the most expensive hotel in town.         –Why didn’t you stay at ___ one?

A  a cheap   B  a cheaper  C the cheaper  D the cheaper

3 –Remember ,boys and girls .___you work ,___result you will get.

— We know ,MissGao

A The better ,the harder   B The harder ,the better

C The hard ,the better     D The harder,the good

4 Kate is really ___ .She ‘s  never angry with others

A tall  B friendly  C lucky   D clever

5 –Which is __ river in China ?—The Changjiang river

A  longer  B the longest   C longest   D the longer

6 –Do you like western food ?

—No,The food of our country is ___ that of western countryies.

A rather good than     B much better than

C more better than     D not so good

7 This is ___ that all of us believe it’svery important.

A such useful information   B so useful information

C so useful informations    D such a useful information

8 The world is becoming smaller and smaller because the Internet bring us ___.

A the close   B closer   C the closer   D close

9 Shanghai is larger than ___ city in India.

A any other   B other   C all other   D any

10 –Do you like the Moonlight Sonata?—Sure ,it sounds really ___.

A clear   B clearly   C beautiful   D beautifully

11 What do you think of the flowers? —They look ___

A beautiful   B beautifully   Cmore beautifull

12 Have you ever seen Tom and Jerry?

—Sure.It is one of ____ cartoons I have ever seen.

A wonderful   B the most wonderful  C more  wonderful

13 Kate felt ___ when she saw the lovely dress in the clothes shop.

A pleased     B tired     C well

14 I think the song My Heart Will Go On is _   _ one of all the movie songs.

A much more beautiful   B the beautiful   C the most beautifull

15 Eating more fruit will keep people__

A carefully    B afraid    C busy      D healthy

16 “Do you want to improve your score in maths?Try staying away from your computer.”A recent report in Britain says ,”The ___ students use computers at school and at home ,the ___ they do in exams of reading and maths,”

A more ,better   B less,worse   C more,more   D less,better

17 –Do you like English ?—Yes ,but I think it’s ___ subject of all.

A the easiest            B the most difficult

C the most intesting      D the most boring

18 I hear that Mike is __ student in his class .

A more careful     B the most careful       C careful

19 –What do you think of the bridge ?—I have never seen ___ before.

A so a long one B so long one C such a long one D a such long one

20 Do you think maths is __foreign languages?

A more difficult B less difficult C as difficult as D the most difficult

21 It’s raining ___ We have to stay at home instead of going fishing?

A badly    B hardly    C heavily    D strongly

22 The Chinese parents always teach their children to be __ to others.

A carfully     Bfriendly      C lonely

23 Write __ and try not to make any mistake .

A as carefully as possible      B as carfully as you can

C more carful               D more  carfully

24 Gao Yuecdid quite _   _ at the World  Table Tennis Championship,but Zhang Yining did even ___

A better ,well   B well ,well  C well .better   D better,well

25 Jane’s leg was _   _ painfull that he couldn’t move at all

A too     B so       C very

26 –do you have sports meeting?—Twice a year

A How soon     B How ofren       C How long

27 Don’t worry .He is ___to take care of little Betty.

A carefully enough   B enough careful   C careful enough

28 –We can use MSn to talk with each other on the Internet.

—Really?Will please show me ___it

A what to use   B how to use   C how can I use   D what I use

29 Don’t worry,sir .I’m sure I can run __to catch up with them.

A fast enough B enough fast  C slowly enough  D enough slowly

30 ––____do you pay a visit to your grandparents?–At least four times a month though I am busy preparing for my exam.

A How many   B How long   C How much   D How often

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