一些来自农业的表达

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In the early days of human history, people survived by hunting wild animals, or gathering wild grains and plants for food.  Then, some people learned to grow crops and raise animals for food. They were the first farmers.在人类历史的早期,人们靠捕猎野生动物或采集野生谷物和植物为生。然后,一些人学会了种植庄稼和饲养动物作为食物。他们是第一批农民。

Since the sixteenth century, the word farm has meant agricultural land. But a much older meaning of the word farm is linked to economics. The word farm comes from the Latin word, firma, which means an unchanging payment.从16世纪开始,farm这个词就有了农田的意思。但farm这个词的一个更古老的含义与经济学有关。farm这个词来源于拉丁语firma,意思是不变的支付。

Experts say the earliest meaning of the English word farm was a yearly payment made as a tax or rent.专家说,英语单词farm最早的意思是作为税或租金每年支付的钱。

Farmers in early England did not own their land. They paid every year to use agricultural lands.早期英国的农民没有自己的土地。他们每年付费使用农地。

In England, farmers used hawthorn trees along the edges of property. They called this row of hawthorns a hedge.在英国,农民在土地边缘种植山楂树。他们把这排山楂树叫做树篱。

Hedging fields was how careful farmers marked and protected them.农民小心翼翼地标记和保护田地。

Soon, people began to use the word hedging to describe steps that could be taken to protect against financial loss.不久,人们开始用hedging这个词来描述为防止经济损失而采取的措施。

Hedging is common among gamblers who make large bets.  A gambler bets a lot of money on one team.  But, to be on the safe side, he also places a smaller bet on the other team, to reduce a possible loss.在豪赌的赌徒中,对冲是很常见的。一个赌徒在一个球队下了很多赌注。但是,为了保险起见,他还会在另一支队伍身上押更小的赌注,以减少可能的损失。

You might say that someone is hedging his bet when he invests in several different kinds of businesses.  One business may fail, but likely not all.你可能会说,某人是对冲他的赌注,当他投资几个不同类型的业务。一家企业可能会失败,但不可能所有企业都失败。

Farmers know that it is necessary to make hay while the sun shines.农民们都知道把握时机(make hay while the sun shines)是非常必要的。

Hay has to be cut and gathered when it is dry.  So a wise farmer never postpones gathering his hay when the sun is shining.  Rain may soon appear.干草必须在干燥时收割和收集。所以,聪明的农民从不会在阳光正下拖延收集干草的时间。不久可能会下雨。

A wise person copies the farmer.  He works when conditions are right.聪明的人模仿农民。他在条件合适的时候工作。

A new mother, for example, quickly learns to try to sleep when her baby is quiet, even in the middle of the day.  If the mother delays, she may lose her chance to sleep.  So, the mother learns to make hay while the sun shines.例如,一个新妈妈很快就会学会在宝宝安静的时候睡觉,即使是在中午。如果母亲拖延时间,她可能会失去睡觉的机会。所以,母亲学会了把握时机。

Beans are a popular farm crop.  But beans are used to describe something of very little value in the expression, not worth a hill of beans.  The expression is often used today.豆类是一种很受欢迎的农作物。但是beans在not worth a hill of beans这个表达中用来描述没有什么价值的东西。这个表达现在经常使用。

You could say, for example, that a bad idea is not worth a hill of beans.例如,你可以说,一个坏主意是不值一山的豆子。

Language expert Charles Earle Funk said the expression was first used almost seven hundred years ago. He said Robert of Gloucester described a message from the King of Germany to King John of England as altogether not worth a bean.语言专家Charles Earle Funk表示,这个表达最早出现在700年前。他说罗伯特·格洛斯特国王的信息描述的德国英格兰国王约翰作为bean完全不值得。

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