Grade 9 Unit 5 Topic 2 Section D

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It was a great gift to the world from ancient China. Before it was invented, sailors had to depend on the star to find the right direction. After it was invented, the oceans were open to sail. And many discoveries were made with its help.

It was one of the greatest inventions. It is said that in the 3rd century a Chinese man wrote about how to make it. At first, it was used for making fireworks. At the end of the Tang dynasty, people began to use it in wars. The method of making it was brought to the Arab world and Europe in the 13th and 14th centuries.

Before it was invented, the ancient Chinese carved characters on animal bones and stones. China was the first country in the world to make it. During the Western Han dynasty, it was made in some places in China and was developed in the Eastern Han dynasty by Cai Lun. He made it with bark, ropes and rags.

It was developed in the Song dynasty by Bi Sheng. He carved characters on pieces of clay or wood, and then brushed ink on them. After the characters were printed on paper, the pieces of clay or wood could be used again. Later this technology spread to Korea, Japan and Europe. It was the basic method used at that time.

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