动名词

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动名词

 动名词由动词原形加词尾“ing”构成。动名词有动词的特征,可以跟宾语,可以被状语修饰;它也有名词的特征,在句子中可以作主语、宾语(包括介词宾语)等。动名词加相关词语(宾语或状语等)构成动名词短语。

 动名词可以作主语。一般可用it作形式主语而将动名词短语后移。如:Learning English all by yourself is not so easy.(自学好英语不那么容易)(=It is not so easy learning English all by yourself.)

 动名词可以作宾语

[A] want / need之后用动名词时,含有被动意思。如:Your car needs reparing badly.(你的车急需修理。)(被修)My hair needs cutting.(我要理发。)(头发被理)

[B] remember / forge / stop / finish之后用动名词时,与用不定式含义不同。如:I forgot to write a letter to him.(我忘了给他写封信)(根本没写) / I forgot writing a letter to him.(我忘了给他写过信)(写了却忘了) / They stopped to look back.(他们停下来向后看)(停下的目的是向后看) / They stopped looking back.(他们停止向后看)(不向后看了)

[C] enjoy / mind / keep / hate/ go等词一般用动名词作宾语。如:Do you mind my closing the door?(把门关上你介意吗?)/ She hates travelling by air.(她讨厌坐飞机旅行)/ They went swimming every afternoon.(他们每天下午去游泳)/ I enjoy walking around the town.(我喜欢在镇上转悠)

[D] like / love / start / begin / learn后面用动名词时,与用不定式意思相近或相同。如:We began to study English when we were at primary school.(我们在小学时就开始学英语了) / We began studying English when we were at primary school. (我们在小学时就开始学英语了)

 动名词可以作表语,此时特别注意不要与现在进行时混淆。如:My job is putting these parts  together.(我的事情是把这些部件拼起来) / I am putting these parts together.(我正在把这些部件拼起来)

 动名词与现在分词构成相同,但是含义不同,动名词主要表示事情,而现在分词则主要表示进行着的动作。如:Eating too much is not good for your health. (动名词短语,作主语) / Seeing is believing.(动名词短语,分别作主语和表语) / He ran after a moving bus and got onto it.(现在分词,作定语) / His father saw him sitting on some eggs.(现在分词,作宾补)

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