副词

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副词:用来说明事情发生的时间、地点、原因、方式等含义或说明其它形容词或副词程度的词叫做副词。

1、副词的分类:(见下表)

    频度副词 地点/方位副词 程度副词 方式副词 疑问/连接副词 其他副词
today, tomorrow, once, here, there, very, too, well, how, too, also,
yesterday, now, twice, home, below, enough, hard, where, nor, so, 
then, early, late, always, anywhere, rather, quite, alone, when, as, on,off,
once, soon, just, usually, above, outside, how, so, fast, why, either,
tonight, long, often, in, inside, out, much, just, together, whether yes, no,
already, yet, before, sometimes, back, up, down, nearly, only suddenly, however, etc. not, neither
ago, later, ever since never, away, off, far, almost, hardly, -ly结尾 关系副词 maybe,
after, whenever (seldom), near, nearby, as long as, 的副词 where, perhaps,
first, someday, ever, wherever even, all,   why, how certainly,
sometime, last,   everywhere, a little, a bit   when,  

2、副词在句子中的位置以及作用

作状语

① 时间副词:一般放在句首或句尾,注意,earlylatebeforelateryet等一般放在句尾,alreadyjust一般放在动词的前面。如:We will visit the Great Wall tomorrow.(我们明天要去参观长城) / They have already been to the UK twice.(他们去过英王国两次) / Soon the lost boy found his way back home.(不久迷路的孩子找到了回家的路)

② 频度副词:一般放在be动词之后或者助动词与主要动词之间,但sometimesoften等还可以放在句首或句尾,usually可放在句首,once可放在句尾,twicethree times等一般放在句尾。如:Sometimes I get up early.(我有时起得早)/ The workers usually have lunch at the factory.(工人们通常在厂里吃午饭) / Take this medicine twice a day.(这种药一天吃两次)

③ 方式副词:一般放在行为动之后,suddenly可以放在句首、句尾或动词之前。如:Old people can hardly walk as quickly as young people.(老年人几乎不可能走得和年轻人一样快) / Suddenly he saw a light in the dark cave(山洞).(突然,在黑黢黢的山洞里,他看见了一丝亮光)

④ 地点副词:一般放在句尾,但herethere还可放在句首。如:There you can see thousands of bikes running in all directions(方向).(在那里,你可以看到成千上万的自行车朝各个方向流动) / The frightened wolf ran away.(受到惊吓的狼逃开了)/ He walked out quietly and turned back soon.(他悄悄地走了出去,很快又返回)

⑤ 程度副词:修饰动词时,放在动词之前;修饰形容词或副词时,放在形容词或副词之前。但注意,enough总是放在被修饰的形容词或动词的后面;only位置比较灵活,总是放在被修饰的词的前面。如:nearly forgot all about it if he did not tell me again.(如果他不再次告诉我,我几乎把那事全忘了) / It was so strange that I could hardly believe my ears.(它那么奇怪一直我都不能相信我的耳朵) / She got to the station early enough to catch the first bus.(她早早地赶到车站赶上了首班车)

⑥ 疑问副词:用于对句子的状语进行提问,位置总是在句首。如:When and where were you born?(你何时何地出生?)Why did little Edison sit on some eggs?(小爱迪生为什么要坐在鸡蛋上?)How do you do?(你好!)

⑦ 连接副词:用来引导主语从句、宾语从句和表语从句,在从句中作状语。How I am going to kill the cat is still a question.(我打算怎样杀死那只猫还是个问题)/ That is why everyone is afraid of the tiger.(那就是人人都害怕老虎的原因) / He wondered how he could do it the next day.(他不知道第二天怎样做那事)

⑧ 关系副词:用来引导定语从句,在从句中作状语。如:This is the place where Mr Zhang once lived.(这就是张先生曾经住过的地方)/ Please tell me the way how you have learned English so well.(请告诉我你的英语是怎样学得这么好的方法)

⑨ 其它副词too“也”,用在句尾;also放在动词前;either “也不”,放在句尾;nor“也不”,放在句首;so“如此,这样”,放在形容词、副词前;on/off“开/关”放在动词之后;not放在be之后、助动词之后、不定式或动名词之前;maybe/perhaps放在句首;certainly放在句首或动词之前。如:He went to the Palace Museum and I went there,too.(他去了故宫博物院,我也去了) / Maybe your ticket is in your inside pocket.(也许你的票就在你的里边衣袋里) / –Tom doesn’t have a computer. –Nor do I.(汤姆没有计算机,我也没有。)

(2)作表语:地点副词一般可以作表语,放在be等连系动词之后,说明人物所处的位置。如:I’m very sorry he isn’t in at the moment.(很抱歉,他此刻不在家)/ I have been away from my hometown for nearly 20 years.(我离开家乡有将近20年了) / Jim is over there.(吉姆就在那边)

(3)作定语:时间副词(如now、then)以及许多地点副词都可以作名词的定语,放在名词的后面。如:People now often have their festival dinners at restaurants.(现在的人们经常在餐馆里吃节日晚宴) / Women there were living a terrible life in the 1920s.(在二十世纪20年代那儿的女人过着可怕的日子)

(4)作宾语补足语:地点副词一般可以作宾语补足语。如:Put your dirty socks away, Jim! They are giving out bad smell!(吉姆,把你的脏袜子拿开!它们在散发着臭气。) / Father kept him in and doing his lessons.(父亲把他关在家里做作业)

[注意] “动词+副词”的宾语如果是代词,则该副词应该放在代词之后。如:He wrote down the word.(他写下了那个词。)→He wrote it down.(他把它写了下来。)

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