20条基础语法规则

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Here are 20 simple rules and tips to help you avoid mistakes in English grammar. 这里有20条简单的规则和技巧,可帮助您避免英语语法错误。

  1. A sentence starts with a capital letter and ends with a period/full stop, a question mark or an exclamation mark.句子以大写字母开头,以句号/句号,问号或感叹号结尾。
  • The fat cat sat on the mat.
  • Where do you live?
  • My dog is very clever!
  1. The order of a basic positive sentence is Subject-Verb-Object. (Negative and question sentences may have a different order.) 基本肯定句的顺序是主语动词宾语。 (否定和疑问句的顺序可能不同。)
  • John loves Mary.
  • They were driving their car to Bangkok.
  1. Every sentence must have a subject and a verb. An object is optional. Note that an imperative sentence may have a verb only, but the subject is understood. 每个句子必须有一个主语和一个动词。宾语是可选的。请注意,祈使句可能仅具有动词,但可以理解主语。
  • John teaches.
  • John teaches English.
  • Stop! (ie You stop!)
  1. The subject and verb must agree in number, that is a singular subject needs a singular verb and a plural subject needs a plural verb. 主语和动词必须在数量上一致,即单数主语需要单数动词,复数主语需要复数动词。
  • John works in London.
  • That monk eats once a day.
  • John and Mary work in London.
  • Most people eat three meals a day.
  1. When two singular subjects are connected by or, use a singular verb. The same is true for either/orand neither/nor当两个单数主语通过or连接时,请使用单数动词。对于“either / or”和“neither / nor ”而言,都是如此。
  • John or Mary is coming tonight.
  • Either coffee or tea is fine.
  • Neither John nor Mary was late.
  1. Adjectives usually come before a noun(except when a verb separates the adjective from the noun). 形容词通常位于名词之前(除非动词将形容词与名词分开)。
  • I have a big dog.
  • She married a handsome Italian man.
  • (Her husband is rich.)
  1. When using two or more adjectives together, the usual order is opinion-adjective + fact-adjective + noun. (There are some additional rules for the order of fact adjectives.) 当同时使用两个或多个形容词时,通常的顺序是意见形容词+事实形容词+名词。 (事实形容词的顺序还有一些其他规则。)
  • I saw a nice French table.
  • That was an interesting Shakespearian play.
  1. Treat collective nouns(eg committee, company, board of directors) as singular OR plural. In BrE a collective noun is usually treated as plural, needing a plural verb and pronoun. In AmE a collective noun is often treated as singular, needing a singular verb and pronoun. 将集体名词(例如委员会,公司,董事会)视为单数或复数。在BrE中,集合名词通常被视为复数形式,需要复数动词和代词。在AmE中,集合名词通常被视为单数,需要一个单数动词和代词。
  • The committee are having sandwiches for lunch. Then they will go to London. (typically BrE)
  • The BBC have changed their logo. (typically BrE)
  • My family likes going to the zoo. (typically AmE)
  • CNN has changed its logo. (typically AmE)
  1. The words itsand it’sare two different words with different meanings. itsit’s是两个具有不同含义的词。
  • The dog has hurt its leg.
  • He says it’s two o’clock.
  1. The words yourand you’reare two different words with different meanings. youryou’re是两个不同的词,具有不同的含义。
  • Here is your coffee.
  • You’re looking good.
  1. The words theretheirand they’reare three different words with different meanings.单词there, theirthey’re是三个具有不同含义的不同单词。
  • There was nobody at the party.
  • I saw their new car.
  • Do you think they’re happy?
  1. The contraction he’scan mean he isOR he has. Similarly, she’s can mean she is OR she has, and it’s can mean it is OR it has, and John’s can mean John is OR John has.  缩写he’s可能意味着he ishe has。同样,she’s可以表示she isshe hasit’s可以表示it isit has,而John’s可以表示John isJohn has
  • He is working
  • He has finished.
  • She is here.
  • She has left.
  • John is married.
  • John has divorced his wife.
  1. The contraction he’dcan mean he hadOR he would. Similarly, they’d can mean they had OR they would.缩写he’d可能表示 he had或者he would. 相似的,they’d可能表示 they had或者they would.
  • He had eaten when I arrived.
  • He would eat more if possible.
  • They had already finished.
  • They would come if they could.
  1. Spell a proper noun with an initial capital letter. A proper noun is a “name” of something, for example Josef, Mary, Russia, China, British Broadcasting Corporation, English. 用首字母大写拼写专有名词。专有名词是某物的“名称”,例如约瑟夫,玛丽,俄罗斯,中国,英国广播公司,英语。
  • We have written to Mary.
  • Is China in Asia?
  • Do you speak English?
  1. Spell proper adjectives with an initial capital letter. Proper adjectives are made from proper nouns, for example Germany  German, Orwell  Orwellian, Machiavelli  Machiavellian用首字母大写拼写专有形容词。专有形容词由专有名词组成,例如Germany  German, Orwell  Orwellian, Machiavelli  Machiavellian
  • London is an English town.
  • Who is the Canadian prime minister?
  • Which is your favourite Shakespearian play?
  1. Use the indefinite article a/anfor countable nouns in general. Use the definite article thefor specific countable nouns and all uncountable nouns. 通常将不定冠词a / an用于可数名词。将定冠词the用于特定的可数名词和所有不可数名词。
  • I saw a bird and a balloon in the sky. The bird was blue and the balloon was yellow.
  • He always saves some of the money that he earns.
  1. Use the indefinite article awith words beginning with a consonant sound. Use the indefinite article anwith words beginning with a vowel sound. 将不定冠词a与以辅音开头的单词一起使用。

使用不定冠词“ an”和以元音开头的单词。

  • a cat, a game of golf, a human endeavour, a Frenchman, a university (you-ni-ver-si-ty)
  • an apple, an easy job, an interesting story, an old man, an umbella, an honorable man (on-o-ra-ble)
  1. Use manyor fewwith countable nouns. Use much/a lot or little for uncountable nouns. 对可数名词使用manyfew。对不可数名词使用much, a lota little
  • How many dollars do you have?
  • How much money do you have?
  • There are a few cars outside.
  • There is little traffic on the roads.
  1. To show possession (who is the owner of something) use an apostrophe + sfor singular owners, and s + apostrophefor plural owners. 为了显示物主(谁是某物的所有者),对单数所有者使用 ’s,对复数所有者使用s’
  • The boy‘s dog. (one boy)
  • The boys’ dog. (two or more boys)
  1. In general, use the active voice (Cats eat fish) in preference to the passive voice(Fish are eaten by cats). 通常,优先使用主动语态(Cats eat fish)而不是被动语态(Fish are eaten by cats)。
  • We use active in preference to passive.
  • Active is used in preference to passive.
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